Glad you're feeling the love
It sounds like most any new owner encountering a lot of little issues that only reveal themselves once the ink on the transfer papers has dried. Who of us hasn't been there, right? But from what you're saying, none of them sounds like fatal errors or anything that will keep you off the road for now.
Your windshield water splasher could just be out of fluid (not to insult your intelligence or anything
), there could be a blockage in the plastic tubing, or a leak, or the motor might be shot, or there could be a loose electronic connection or a blown fuse or a bad switch — take your pick.
The thing is, try and go about fixing up your beast in a logical, step-by-step manner, starting with the most serious stuff first that might effect safety — like the brakes. Since you're low on cash (who isn't?) drive by your local auto parts store and often they will read your codes for free. Every ride with an electronic brain like these has a computer controlling all your car's functions. If something goes wrong, it spits out an error code. This in turn tells you where to look. So if something is wrong with your brakes — really wrong — they'll be an error code helping you focus on what needs doing. Hopefully, it's just pads and rotors like the guy said. But anything else wrong with your beast will show up as well. It's a smart first step in order to get a baseline read on a vehicle which is basically brand new to you. And it only costs the gas to get there. So that'd be my advice for your first step.
I commend you in wanting to fix it up and not waste the money you've already spent. These are great vehicles once you work out all the squawks and isn't winding up with a great vehicle the best "revenge" you could imagine for a bad deal?
Good luck with your finals, stick around here awhile, and remember that there's lots of help available in these precincts....